Newshub18: What is the Cultivation method of saffron?
Bengali name is saffron, in English saffron (saffron) whose scientific name is Crocus sativas. Saffron is one of the most expensive spices in the world. It is also known as ‘Red Gold’. Realizing the importance of saffron’s fragrance and bright color in the Persian Gulf region in ancient times, the use of saffron was widespread among noble families. The origin of this crop is Greece. Saffron cultivation is practiced in many European Union countries. Saffron is cultivated more or less in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, China. In some parts of Spain and India, especially in Kashmir, the cultivation of this crop is very high. Spain exports about 70 percent of the world’s total demand for saffron.
Saffron is actually a dried flower extract. The name of the flowering plant is Crocus sativus. Another name for saffron is red gold for being precious. Crocus sativus can be found anywhere in the world. However, sandy loam soil is suitable for saffron cultivation. Saffron grows best at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius in low light. Growing this plant is not difficult. What is difficult is removing the molecules from the flower. A lot of workers are needed to do this work. Because you have to collect flower molecules one by one. And for this work, saffron is worth so much. 50 to 100,000 flowers are required for 1 pound or 450 grams of dried saffron. 10 lakh to 1 lakh 70 thousand flowers are required for one kg. It takes 40 hours to pick 1 lakh 50 thousand flowers. The price of saffron is around 6 lakh to 10 lakh taka per kg.
How to recognize real saffron
Buyers are often cheated by sellers while buying saffron. Because fake saffron is sold in the market. Fake saffron is made from flower petals called kusum. Due to the bright red color of the powder made from the saffron flower, it becomes difficult to differentiate between fake and real saffron. Buyer must be aware of this while buying saffron.
The buds or bulbs (much like onions) are collected and used for propagation. Only two bulbs suitable for planting are available from a one-year-old tree. But after 3-4 years 5-7 motha can be obtained from each tree. If you want to plant in new land, you have to collect motha from 3-4 years old tree and plant it in the land. It is not right to keep crops for more than 3-4 years on the same land. It is necessary to remove motha or bulb and adopt a new farming system.
Selection of land
Saffron can be grown in almost all types of land. However, sandy loam soil is more suitable for cultivation of this crop. High or medium high land with drainage facilities should be selected for cultivation. This crop should be planted in a place where there is sufficient sunshine and light and air.
Saffron Cultivation Method
About 150 saffron pods are required for grounding the prepared seeds. Bulbs of this crop are planted in July-August before the end of monsoon.At the beginning, when the land is deeply cultivated, 300 kg of rotted cow dung/garbage rotted manure, 3 kg of TSP and 4 kg of MOP are applied to the land, mixing all the fertilizers well with the soil and leaving it with light irrigation after two weeks will be suitable for planting saffron bulbs. . This crop is more suitable for cultivation in homestead areas.
To cultivate this crop, the land must always be kept free of weeds. Occasional light loosening of the soil with a rake will facilitate air circulation in the soil and the plant will grow well. Light irrigation can be given during dry season. However, the irrigation requirement is very less as compared to other crops. Care should be taken that water does not accumulate on the ground during monsoon. If water accumulates, the planted bulbs will rot.
Disasters and diseases
A variety of mice, chikas and rabbits like to eat saffron leaves, flowers and even plant moths, wasting twice as much moths as they eat. For this, if such nuisance is found, it should be controlled by using necessary traps or by using drugs to kill it.
Root rot disease
It is a very harmful disease of saffron. Due to the attack of this disease, the roots rot and the tree dies. The disease is quite contagious, so special precautions should be taken and saffron cannot be grown in affected land for two years.
Collection of saffron
The first year of planting usually does not flower. However, if the saffron planted bulb is quite large in size, only one flower may emerge from the saffron plant that year. Next year every plant will have 2-3 flowers in succession. A two-year-old tree will give 4-5 flowers and a three-year-old tree will give 7-8 flowers. Saffron has 3 female parts and 3 male parts. The plant starts flowering from October and continues till November.
Quality of saffron
Although small in size, this most valuable fragrance is known as a cooking ingredient worldwide. Apart from this, saffron also has some medicinal properties. Saffron is used to reduce body fat, aphrodisiac, cure flatulence, regulate menstruation in women. Apart from this, protection from cancer, increasing knowledge acquisition and memory retention, delaying puberty, increasing sexual power, hair growth on bald head, protection from cold, making food tasty: Saffron is added to make food fragrant and tasty. Apart from this, saffron also makes the food attractive and colorful. The bright color of saffron attracts people to the food. Saffron is used to make various types of cakes and biscuits, to marinate fish, to cook polao and biryani. Apart from this, it is also useful in making coffee, different types of fruit syrups, curds, lachi.
This saffron, which has many qualities, cannot be consumed in excess. It should not be consumed in any food in case of pregnant women. Apart from this, any person can get poisoned by eating more than one or two spoons.