Newshub18:Integrated Shrimp Fish System.
Introduction: The amount of cultivable land in our country is constantly decreasing. Due to the need for accommodation of the increased population, the amount of agricultural land is decreasing, but the food demand of the people is increasing. As a result, the food demand of the large population cannot be met by the yield obtained from the present arable land. Firstly, the amount of agricultural land is decreasing and secondly, the proper and optimal utilization of the resources is not ensured, so the income of the farmer is not increasing. As a result, most of the total population of our country suffers from food insecurity and lives in economic and social poverty. In this situation it is very important to ensure proper and maximum utilization of agricultural land and resourcesAnd so “Integrated Shrimp Farming Program” was piloted under the Fisheries Extension Project in Mitha Pani in lowland paddy fields to bring positive economic and social change to the target population in a very short period of time through proper and maximum utilization of resources. Because this farming system has already proven to be a very profitable business venture.Integrated Shrimp Farming “Integrated Shrimp Farming” is the cultivation of fresh water shrimp (lobster), white fish, rice and vegetables together after preparing a certain paddy land for lobster farming for higher income. That is, by making a high lane around a land and cutting the inside of the lane like a canal or drain to hold the water for a long time. Cultivation of rice and vegetables together is “combined shrimpCultivation”.
Lobster is the most valuable of the mentioned crops hence this farming system is termed as “Integrated Shrimp Farming”.
IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATED SHRIMP FARMING Farming is done in different lands in our country. For example, if paddy is cultivated in a field, vegetables are not cultivated in the farm, or if vegetables are cultivated in the field, rice is not cultivated, and ponds are selected for fish farming. If someone cultivates shrimp as a hobby, the pond is the last hope. This is how our current farming situation is going. As a result proper and maximum utilization of the land is not ensured and our farming brothers are not satisfied with the income received from the land. In this case even a small piece of land can be converted into a money mine through integrated farming. That is, instead of cultivating different crops separately, by cultivating lobster, fish, rice and vegetables simultaneously in one piece of paddy land, on the one hand, the income from the land increases and on the other hand, the risk/loss of farming is reduced. Below is the comparative information of annual income per acre (100 percent) of land:
1. Rice 10,000 10,000 2. Shrimp (Freshwater) – 60,000 3. Fish – 8,000 4. Vegetables – 2,000 Total 10,000 (Maximum) 80,000 (Minimum)
Integrated Lobster Farming System Integrated shrimp farming system is a combination of continuous operations. In other words, a slight negligence in implementing some of the steps of this cultivation system from the beginning to the end can deprive you of a lot of profit if you want to get the desired results. The farming brothers of Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira districts of south-western part of Bangladesh follow every step of the shrimp farming system with great importance and care and through hard work they have been able to come to a better economic and social condition in a very short time. And it proves that if you work hard, success will surely come.
The steps to be taken from the beginning to the end of the integrated shrimp farming system are:
1. Land selection and infrastructure development.
2. Land preparation / utilization.
♥ Advance stock arrangement
♥ Reserve time system
♥ Stock follow-up
4. Stocking of juveniles from nursery ponds to main land, regular feeding and care.
5. Mixed farming of shrimp with other fish.
6. Cultivation of vegetables in the aisle.
7. Regular (twice a month) monitoring of shrimp samples.
8. Shrimp harvesting and marketing.
9. Shrimp Disease Management (Possible).
Land selection and infrastructure development
Land selection: It has already been said that in integrated shrimp farming management, lobster, fish (silver, catla) and vegetables are cultivated together with rice. But not all land is suitable for this farming system. For example: high land or land where the amount of sand soil is high cannot retain water, so shrimp and white fish cannot be cultivated and integrated farming will not be done. Therefore, land selection is very important first.
Characteristics of suitable land:
Waterlogged low land or paddy fields.
Where rain water can be retained for 7-10 months.
Where the amount of clay soil is high.
Land near residential house.
Construction of infrastructure: After selecting the land, suitable infrastructure for integrated shrimp farming should be built on the selected land. So that every part of the land can be used properly.
The following points are important in building infrastructure:
(a) Creation of aisles: Sufficiently high (1 cubit above the level of standing water during monsoons) and thick/wide (2 feet at the top and 3 feet at the bottom) aisles are made at the side of the land-
The following benefits can be achieved:
Water can be retained in the land.
Shrimp or fish cannot move to other lands.
Rotten and dirty water from outside will not enter inside.
By cultivating vegetables in the island, family needs can be met and money can be earned.
(b) Canal/Drain: A canal or drain (7-10 feet wide and 3-5 feet deep) is made in the ground leaving a space (Bakchar) of 3-4 feet from the aisle towards the inside of the aisle-
The following facilities should be ensured-
Shrimp and fish shelters will also work.
If the water is heated by the heat of the sun, it will take refuge in the cold water of the canal.
Water can be retained in the land during the dry season.
Shrimp feed will be used as a place of application.
It should be noted that according to the size of the land and the capacity of the farmer, the land canal should be made. If the land is big, at least 3 sides of the channel should be cut and if it is small, 2 sides of the channel should be cut. If a 10-1 feet canal is cut a little wider in the land, it will work even on one side.
(c) Nasari pond: Like other fish species, shrimp species should not be released to the cultivation site first. Because it kills more shrimp cells. So to save the Renu, a place must first be made on any side of the selected land, where the Renu can be cared for separately for 30-35 days. Molecules can be taken care of individually. This place where cells are kept separately is called nursery pond. Nasari ponds are generally better if they are small and the size of the pond depends on the amount of land and potential shrimp stock. But generally, 3 percent to 10 percent and a depth of 3-5 feet is best.
Land preparation Integrated farming is land preparation – like preparing land for growing rice or other crops. In order to get a good crop in the land, such as fixing the aisles, cultivating, weeding, applying fertilizers and planting seedlings, before releasing the larvae in the shrimp farming land, there are a number of related works. By doing this, the cat gets a suitable environment. As a result, better production is obtained. Moreover, it is very important to prepare the designated plot/land for shrimp farming to protect the shrimp from future problems in shrimp farming such as generation of polluting gases in the water, shrimp diseases etc. Therefore, through land preparation, the designated plot/land is made suitable for shrimp breeding stock, i.e., a healthy environment is created for them.
The steps or steps to be followed while preparing the enclosure or farm are:
Ensuring adequate sunlight and removing weeds
To remove the fairy or the weep
Removing monster and unwanted fish
Check the presence of natural food in the water and suitability for spawning
Repair banks: land banks that are free of large trees or other objects that prevent adequate sunlight from reaching the water. Also, if there are unwanted weeds on the slope or bank of the fence, if there are holes in the bank, various kinds of monsters can hide which can eat the young (eg snakes, snakes, bees, etc.). Moreover, care should be taken to ensure that the bank is not broken, which may cause problems due to infiltration of flood water or water from the adjacent land. During the construction of the enclosure, water flow must be ensured. Because the quality of water in the environment depends on the flow of water.
Ensuring Adequate Sunlight and Removal of Weeds: In many cases the land may grow a variety of unnecessary and redundant aquatic plants which are submersed or floating or semi-submersed which take nutrients from the water and reduce the food supply and they do not allow enough sunlight to enter and from the water at night. OxygenAs a result of consumption, there is a lack of oxygen, moreover, it disrupts the natural food production process in the process of photosynthesis and can produce toxic gases of weed decomposition, thus the land becomes unsuitable for shrimp farming. So they have to be removed during land preparation and at all times thereafter.
Stripping (Old Fish/Shrimp Cultivated Land): Shrimp and fish farmers provide a large amount of different feed every year for the production of shrimp and fish. Not all eat shrimp or white fish. As a result, the residue rots and accumulates at the bottom of the water. In addition, various aquatic plants die and rot in the soil and the soil on the banks of the perimeter accumulates on the ground and creates a lot of water. Various types of gases are generated from these and the quality of water deteriorates. Production of shrimp and white fish is disrupted. Therefore, during the preparation of the land for shrimp cultivation, the excess soil must be removed. It should be noted that there is no need to remove weeds from the new shrimp farming land for the first 3 years.
Removal of monster and unwanted fish: Prior to stocking shrimp farms, it should be ensured that the farm is free of monster and unwanted species of fish. And enclosure management will not be good if there are wild and untamed fish. Because monster species (such as Boal, Shoal, Taki, Kai, Iyer, Kakila, Chital etc.) are carnivores, they eat all other species. Apart from this, non-predatory species (such as molluscs, molluscs, putti etc.) are not monsters but share the cultivable fodder and oxygen.
Apart from that, the shrimp farmers of our country keep the previous year’s shrimp in the hope of getting a good market for the next year, but lobsters are omnivorous, so if they get a chance, they eat the next year’s larvae. For this reason it is better not to keep the previous brood.
Removal of invasive and invasive species takes into account farmers’ financial capacity and natural productivity.
The following methods can be adopted: (a) Repetitive pulling of the net can remove monster and untargeted fish.
(b) Dry enclosure water- After 2/3 years it will be better if the enclosure water dries up.
But in that case the source of water should be taken into consideration.
Advantages of drying shrimp farming land: Removal of excess mud or bottom
Removal of monster or unwanted fish
The heat of the sun enriches the soil under the enclosure with nutrients
The soil toxic gases are removed, but consideration must be given to providing sufficient water again.
If the above methods are not possible then rotenone can be applied at the following rates. (c) Application of rotenone:
Application Rate Volume Depth Strength Duration of toxicity 18-20 grams per hundred feet of water 9.17-10 days 20-25 grams per hundred 7%
Application of lime: Application of lime is important in shrimp and fish farming. In this case, there is no end to the benefits of lime. For example:
Application of lime destroys soil and water damage pathogens.
Application of lime (lime contains calcium) helps in physical growth of fish and shrimp.
Regular use of lime acts as a preventative.
The application of lime removes the turbidity of the water and helps in the penetration of sunlight into the water and the process of making natural food continues.
Lime enhances the effectiveness of fertilizers.
The shrimps are deprived of oxygen as the bacteria in the water take oxygen from the water. Applying lime inactivates the bacteria for a certain period of time, thereby reducing their oxygen consumption.
Application rate: The application of lime mainly depends on the soil quality of the land. It is best to use rock lime at the rate of 1 kg while preparing the land for shrimp farming.
How to use:
For dry land: When there is no water in the land i.e. in dry land, powdered lime should be applied by sprinkling it on the land.
In the presence of water: 8-10 limes should be soaked in a pot or soil pit (can be used after 3-4 hours if necessary) before mixing. The said lime should be sprinkled in the water of the enclosure or in the canal and slope between the chatal and bank of the dry enclosure.
Fertilizer application: At least 5-7 days after application of lime, organic manure or composted manure or green manure or inorganic manure can be applied to the land for natural food production of plantain. As an organic fertilizer, it is better to soak poultry droppings for at least 12 hours instead of adding them directly to water and then apply them. But direct application on dry land gives good results.
Fertilizers can be applied at the following rates while preparing the land for shrimp farming:
Per cent – applied to water Per cent – applied to water Manure / Compost: 3-5 kg Manure: 30-40 kg Poultry droppings: 2-2.50 kg Poultry droppings: 15-20 kg
Urea: 100 grams is not very applicable in shrimp farming.
TSP: 100 grams.
[NB: It is important to remember here that the level of fertilizer application will not always be correct. This may vary depending on the situation.]
Check the presence of natural food in water and suitability for release of algae:
During the application of fertilizers, natural food is produced in the pond. Microscopic and visible algae and animals in the water are natural food. A natural diet is very important for healthy growth of shrimp. The presence of natural food in the water can also be understood by looking at the color of the pond water. Natural food production requires light, heat, nutrients and a favorable environment. The production of these natural foods also fluctuates due to environmental variations.
There are several methods for determining the correct dosage of natural foods. Within 5-7 days of application of fertilizer, it will be understood whether food has been prepared in the water. If the color of the water is light green, reddish and brownish green, it should be understood that the food has been prepared. Moreover, it can be understood whether natural food has been prepared-
It also uses disk
Uses clear glass
Seki Disk System:
After immersing these discs in water-
Do not give too much fertilizer up to red thread, it will not go without green thread.
.Palm method: If the palm / leaves are not visible after immersing the palm in the pond water up to the elbow at 10-11 o’clock on a sunny day, it should be understood that there is no natural food and should be fertilized regularly. That is, if the palm is not visible, it should be understood that there is natural food in the water.
This can also be done with water in a clear glass.
Lobster stocking Lobster stocking should be done after preparing the land by following the mentioned shrimp farming land preparation steps. Among all the steps to be taken from the beginning to the end of integrated shrimp farming, the molecular stock and its management in Nasri ponds are very important. Because it is more likely to be damaged at the molecular level. With proper management, special care should be taken after 30-45 days of shrimp stocking, then there is no risk and the mortality rate of shrimp is very low. As a result the farmer brother gets his desired fruit. And so a farmer needs to know very well about the rules and proper management of lobster stocking. Therefore, all the details of lobster nursery management are mentioned here:
Lobster Nursery Management:
What is lump nursery?
The larvae are called post larvae or PL. The systematic rearing of these nodules in small ponds (separate areas within the land) to produce juvenile shrimp is called nodule nursery.
Why is the nursery necessary?
Lumps can be compared to human babies. Just as we take special care not to harm the human child (intelligence) so that it can grow, molecules require special care. Because at the molecular level they are weak and helpless. Transporting him further weakens him. Apart from that, he does not have the ability to escape from the hands of snakes, frogs, ducks, monster fish etc. at the molecular level. Because of that, if the seeds are stored in large areas unplanned, 50-60 percent of the seeds may die, and the farmer may suffer economically. So the molecular reserve is important and the death rate of so many molecules is reduced to a great extent.
Steps of Lobster Nursery Management:
A. Advance management of stock:
Nursery Size: Nursery pond size should be between 5-10 percent. In this case, 1 canal or pit of paddy field can be used.
Depth: The depth of the nursery pond should be between 3-4 feet as it gets enough sunlight and there is no shortage of nutrients.
Drying the bottom of the nursery pond: In case of lobster nursery, the bottom of the pond should be thoroughly dried by removing the water and weeding should be done.
Application of lime: Rock lime should be applied at the rate of 1 kg per cent. Lime powder should be sprinkled directly when the pond is dry and mixed with water if there is water.
Preparation of natural food: After 3-5 days of application of lime only 3-5 kg of dung per cent should be mixed with water and sprinkled.
Control of Aquatic Insects: Aquatic insects such as duckweeds damage small molecules. So 125 ml per cent on the day before release. Spraying diesel or kerosene on water kills duckweed and other insects within 4-6 hours. Later, the ants with kerosene should be removed with a net or cloth. No insecticides must be used for pest control.
Setting up of shrimp shelters: Shelters should be provided in the shrimp nursery. The growth of the shrimp is by changing the shell. Shrimp are vulnerable during molting. A remarkable characteristic of shrimps is that they are autophagous. Not all shrimp molt at the same time. So at this time, the strong shrimp, that is, those that do not change their shells, eat the weak ones. So during this time a safe shelter is needed for the weak shrimp. Therefore, shelter should be provided for the shrimp in the pond before stocking. The upper part with dry bamboo branches (jhangla) is very useful as a shelter. Every century, 1-2 bamboo shoots (the upper part of the bamboo with branches) or dried branches should be immersed in water.
Making a shelter: In order that the water of the nursery pond does not get too hot or if the water gets hot, the shrimps can take shelter in a cold place.
b. Inventory Management-
Stocking density: 500-600 molecules per cent can be stocked. 1000-2000 cells per cent can be stocked if the nursery plans to rear cells for 15-20 days.
Hatching time: Lobster fry must be stocked after dusk. However, it is best to stock up between 8/9pm as the temperature of the water rises rapidly during the day and the molecule cannot acclimatise to it. As a result the molecule dies. But at night the water temperature decreases very slowly. Which is not a problem for the molecule. So it is better to leave the molecule at night. Good results are obtained by releasing molecule at night which is 100% tested in farmer’s field.
Hatchling: Hatchlings must be acclimatized to pond water. You must wait until the water temperature in the bottle/bag is equal to the water temperature of the pond. If the water in the pot is slowly changed and the pot with the pot is tilted, the molecules will voluntarily come out into the water. This process can last up to 20-30 minutes. Do not be too hasty in releasing the molecules into the water, the molecules must be acclimated with sufficient temperature. Because the difference in water temperature between the nursery pond and the nursery pond can cause the death of the nursery. Therefore, more importance should be given to the process of molecular adaptation during discharge.
Post Stock Management-
Supplementary food application: Lobsters do not depend on natural food. Therefore, he should be given nutritious food every day. A handful of semolina should be given once daily in the evening for every 5000 renu for the first 7 days after pona stocking. Because shrimp usually eat at night.
For next 2nd and 3rd week- to make 1kg- fish powder / meat powder 40%⇒ 400 gm kheil (mustard / soybean) 40% ⇒ 400 gm chitagur 10% ⇒ 100 gm and wheat flour 10% ⇒ 100 gm
The above amount of different ingredients should be mixed together to make a dough and make balls in the shape of eggs.
Each egg size should be counted for 1,000 molecules. Each ball is again made into four smaller balls to be given where the bush is given. In the following weeks, the amount of this food should be increased at the rate of 20%.
Renu survival observation: The day after release of Renu or PL in the pond with a piece of towel or mosquito net, the condition of the renu should be pulled to a corner of the pond. Farmer experience has shown that after two days of release of the molecule in nursery ponds there is no further risk.
Health and Growth Monitoring: Cells should be checked for good health and growth. The condition of the frog should be seen by pulling it with a piece of towel or mosquito net in the pond, if the frog moves very quickly, then it will be understood that the frog is in good health.
In this way after 30-45 days rearing of cells in the nursery they should be stocked in large ponds/paddy fields.
Important considerations in nodule cultivation:
♣ Storage of molecules after evening.
♣ Giving bushes (Jingla) in the nursery.
♣ Regular evening meal.
♣ Monitoring of molecule survival.
♣ Provision of shade on any side of the nursery pond.
Hamta lobster molecular rearing or hamta nursery
Another method can be used for molecular rearing of lobsters. That is Hampa Nursery. Hampa nursery can be placed in any clean pond. That is, if there is no facility for small nursery ponds or pocket enclosures (canals or canals in paddy fields), then the larvae can be reared and released into stock ponds or paddy fields.
Necessary materials for Japanese nursery: Plastic filter net, nylon twine, bamboo, tin plate, home-made whole food, dry coconut/palm leaves or bamboo agali (shrimp).
Method: Make a trap with a plastic net of fine mesh. The area of the basket is 2 m 2 m 1.50 m. This volume can be increased or decreased. This hampa should be placed in any clean pond with a bamboo stick. No need to add lime or fertilizer to the pond for hampa nursery. For application of lobster food, the tin plate should be hung with nylon thread in such a way that the food plate is in the middle of the boiling water. 2-4 plates can be used per breath. Dry palm branches with leaves should be given 2 times in each pan. In order to act as a shelter for the weevils and the palm leaves should be changed every seven/eight days. And the breather should be cleaned every week so that the algae stuck in the water does not stick to the breather.
Food application: Feed should be given in the tin plate which will be placed in the pan. One fourth of the total daily food application should be applied in the evening and one part in the morning.
Dried Fish / Meat Powder-40% Mustard Kheil 40% Flour / Flour-20%
All three ingredients should be mixed with water and made into small balls and these balls should be dried well in the sun. At the time of application, the ball should be crushed well and placed on a tin plate. Thus, for every thousand molecules, 60 g should be given in the first week, 80 g in the 2nd week, 100 g in the 3rd and 4th week. In the 5th and 6th week, 120 grams of food should be consumed. The amount of food application should be increased or decreased based on the presence of food on the tin plate.
Storage volume: 100 to 200 molecules can be stored per square meter of water. Stock period: 40 to 45 days. After rearing the pans, it should be transferred to paddy fields or stock ponds.
1. Many times it is seen that the crabs cut the trap net so you have to take care of that.
2. As hemp stays in water for a long time, no perishable fabric can be used for making hemp.
Regular food application
Regular application of feed: Among the various steps/activities of integrated shrimp farming, regular application of supplementary feed is an important step. Because like other fish, shrimp cannot get enough natural food from the water. Therefore regular supplementary feeding must be applied to make the shrimp marketable in a short period of time. Shrimp must be fed from the time juveniles are transferred from the nursery pond to the main land until the shrimp are sold. It must be remembered that shrimp farming cannot be made profitable without food application.
Generally, application of manure or dung in the water produces natural food (plant particles and animal particles) in the water which are consumed by silver carp, catla, roe, etc. But shrimps are not used to eating all these foods. So food must be applied for them from outside. Supplementation is the application of food from outside.
Supplementary food for shrimp:
A variety of packaged foods are available in the market to feed shrimp. But these foods are very expensive. Since shrimps need to be fed regularly and if a farmer wants to buy shrimp feed from the market, the cost of farming will increase a lot. As a result, the farmer’s profit will decrease. So instead of buying food from the market, it is better to feed the shrimp by making food at home using various ingredients. As the nutritional quality of the food will be enhanced, the cost will also be less (50%). Shrimp food can be prepared by mixing different ingredients in different amounts. However, considering the easy availability of ingredients and the nutritional quality of the food, 3 rules for making supplementary food for shrimp are mentioned here:
Ingredient Name Quantity Meat/Dried Fish Powder 25%Khail (Mustard/Soybean) 25%Rice Bran 20%Flour 25%Vegetables 05%Total 100%
Ingredient Name Quantity Meat/Dried Fish Powder 25%Khail (Mustard/Soybean) 25%Rice Bran 20%Flour 15%Corn 10%Vegetables 5%Total 100%
Sequential No.Name Amount of Ingredients1.Khail (Mustard/Soybean)40%2.Flour / Flour 10%3.